Modern History of Bihar Part-1: Bihar is situated on one of the fertile regions of the world which are drained by the river Ganga. It was famous for its cotton, textile, saltpetre and indigo. Hence, it was one of the important trading centres of India from Ancient to Medieval India. During most of British India, Bihar was a part of the Presidency of Bengal, and was governed from Calcutta. As such, this was a territory very much dominated by the people of Bengal. All leading educational and medical centers were in Bengal.
Here, we are giving the complete study material of ‘Modern History of Bihar’ that will ease the journey of aspirants to crack the competitive examinations like BPSC and other state-level examinations.
Modern History of Bihar Part-1
The arrival of Europeans:
- Portuguese – traded in spices for textiles especially cotton
- British – factory at Alamganj in Patna in 1620 for saltpetre, presently the East India Company factory at Gulzar Bagh is turned into govt. printing press.
- Dutch – interested in cotton textiles, saltpetre and food grains.
- Danes – established the factory at Nepali Kothi in Patna.
Battle of Buxar – 22nd October 1764:
- British won the Battle led by Hector Munro against the combined army of Mughals under Shah Alam II; Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal and Shuja-Ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Awadh.
- Two separate Treaties were signed at Allahabad
- With the Mughals on 12th August 1765
- With the Nawab of Awadh on 16th August 1765.
- Mughals and the Nawab of Bengal lost the effective control of the province of Bengal constituting present-day West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, and Bangladesh.
- The Company got Diwani Rights of these provinces i.e. collection of revenues.
- Nawab of Awadh paid huge reparations and also ceded some of his territories.
Bihar and Bengal Famine 1770 and 1783:
- In 1783 when famine stuck again, the then Governor-General Warren Hastings ordered for the massive dome-shaped granary of Golghar.
- Golghar was built by Captain John Garstin in 1786.
Permanent Settlement of Zamindari System:
- It was introduced in Bengal, Orissa, and districts of Benaras and northern districts of Madras by Lord Cornwallis.
- Its architect was John Shore.
- It declared Zamindars as owners of the land.
- Zamindars could keep 1/11th of the revenue collected and give 10/11th to the British. They were free to fix the rents and exploited the tenants.
- The rise of absentee landlords and moneylenders.
- Later the Bengal Tenancy Act was passed in 1885 to define rights of the tenants.
Revolt of 1857 in Bihar:
- Governor-General – Lord Canning
- Started on 12th June 1857 in Deoghar district (now in Jharkhand) at the headquarters of 32nd Infantry Regiment.
- On 3rd July 1857, the revolt started in Patna under bookseller Pir Ali.
- On 25th July 1857, the revolt started in Darbhanga which marked the beginning of the widespread revolt in Bihar.
- Notable figure: Babu Kuwar Singh of Jagdishpur (currently in Bhojpur district) occupied Arrah and he also defeated the British with Nana Saheb at Azamgarh (UP).
Administration of Bihar by the Company:
- East India Company created a post of Deputy Governor to administer Bihar. Raja Ram Narayan and Shitab Roy were important Deputy Governors after Battle of Buxar.
- Revenue Council of Patna was constituted in 1770 later replaced by Revenue Chief of Bihar in 1781.
- When Delhi became the capital in 1911, province of Bihar and Orissa was carved out from Bengal making Patna its capital.
- 22nd March 1912 Bihar was constituted.
- Educational institutions by British:
- Patna College
- Patna Science College
- Bihar College of Engineering
- Prince of Wales Medical College
- Patna Veterinary College
- of India Act 1935 divided Bihar into two separate provinces of Bihar and Orissa
Home Rule League in Bihar:
- Established in Bankipore (Patna) on 16th December 1916
- President – Mazhar-ul-Haque
- Vice-Presidents – Sarfaraz Hussain Khan and Purnendu Narain Sinha
- Secretaries – Chandravanshi Sahay and Baijnath Narain Singh
- Sachindranath Sanyal – established the branch of Anushilan Samiti in Patna in 1913
- Bankimchandra Mitra of B.N. College – managed Anushilan Samiti, formed Hindu Boys Association for teaching Vivekananda’s ideas.
- Benaras Conspiracy Case 1915 – Sachindranath Sanyal and Bankimchandra Mitra
- Patna Yuvak Sangh formed in 1927
- Bihar Yuvak Sangh 1928 in Motihari – Gyan Shah
- Patliputta Yuvak Sangh 1929 – formed in Patna by Rambriksha Benipuri and Ambika Kant Singh
- Monthly Magazine YUVAK was started in Patna.
- Female revolutionaries – Kusum Kumari Devi and Gauri Das
- Limitations – religious overemphasis kept Muslims aloof, limited upper-caste involvement and lack of mass involvement made it a subject of govt. suppression
- Raj Kumar Shukla invited Mahatma Gandhi to look into Indigo Planters problem.
- Gandhi’s his first Satyagraha in 1917. Other leaders Rajendra Prasad, Anugrah Narayan Singh, Mazhar-ul-Haque, Mahadeo Desai, Narhari Parikh and J B Kriplani.
- European planters were forcing farmers to plant indigo on 3/20th of their lands called Tinkathiya system.
- It forced the British to appoint a committee to make the inquiry. Gandhi was also a member. He convinced the committee to abolish Tinkathiya system and pay the peasants 25% compensation.
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